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Sulawesi Hawk-eagle
Nisaetus lanceolatus

Status: Lower risk

Population Trend: Unknown.

Other Names: Celebes Hawk Eagle, Celebes Hawk-eagle, Spizaetus lanceolatus, Sulawesi Hawk Eagle.


Nisaetus lanceolatus
click to enlarge
Distribution: Indomalayan. Endemic to SULAWESI and SULA ISLANDS. more....

Subspecies: Monotypic.

Taxonomy: Traditionally placed in the genus Spizaetus, but recent molecular studies by Helbig et al. (2005) showed that the Asian hawk-eagle species represent a different lineage from the New World hawk-eagle species and should therefore be assigned to a new genus for which the name Nisaetus Hodgson 1836 is available. The same conclusion was reached independently by Lerner and Mindell (2005), who also found that N. cirrhatus and N. lanceolatus are sister species, based on the molecular sequences of one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes. Gamauf et al. (2005b) and Haring et al. (2007) also confirmed that Asian Spizaetus (Nisaetus) species are monophyletic and are distributed in two sub-clades, one of which consists of N. cirrhatus, N. philippensis, N. pinskeri, and N. lanceolatus.more....

Movements: Non-migratory, but juveniles disperse from breeding areas (Bildstein 2006).

Habitat and Habits: Inhabits primary and tall secondary lowland, hill, and montane forest and forest edge. Occasionally ranges over nearby open country. Perches in tree crowns, sometimes conspicuously, and sometimes hunts in grassy clearings (Coates and Bishop 1997).

Food and Feeding Behavior: Probably feeds on mammals, birds, and reptiles. Presumably still-hunts from a perch, like other Nisaetus species, but may also snatch prey from the canopy (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Breeding: Little information. One nests was in epiphytes about 20 m high on a large limb of a huge forest tree (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Recently-fledged young have been reported in August, suggesting breeding from May to August. Clutch size is probably 1 egg. The incubation and nestling periods are unrecorded.

Conservation: Still considered to be rather common (Nurwatha et al. 2000, Thiollay and Rahman 2002), probably reflecting the large extent of remaining forest on the Sulawesi islands. However, like all forest eagles in Southeast Asia, it suffers from habitat loss in many areas, and it is often shot by farmers because it preys upon chickens and pets. Categorized globally as a species of "Least Concern" by BirdLife International, but was formerly treated as Near Threatened (Collar et al. 1994).

Population Estimates: Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) estimated the global pooulation, based on the number of adults and immatures at the start of the breeding season, in the range of 1,001 to 10,000 individuals, most likely nearer the latter figure. BirdLife International (2009) also estimated the number of mature birds at 1,000 to 10,000 individuals, but noted that the supporting data for this estimate are poor.

Important References: 
Amadon, D. 1953. Remarks on the Asiatic hawk-eagles of the genus
  Spizaetus. Ibis 95:492-500.
Clark, W.S. 1994. Sulawesi Hawk-eagle. P. 204 in del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott,
  and J. Sargatal (eds). Handbook of birds of the world. Vol. 2. New World
  vultures to guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Coates, B.J., and K.D. Bishop. 1997. A guide to the birds of Wallacea,
  Sulawesi, the Moluccas and Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Dove
  Publications, Alderley, Queensland, Australia.
Ferguson-Lees, J., and D.A. Christie. 2001. Raptors of the world. Houghton
  Mifflin, Boston, MA.
Gamauf, A., J.-O. Gjershaug, N. Røv, K. Kvaløy, and E. Haring. 2005.
  Species or subspecies? The dilemma of taxonomic ranking of some South-East
  Asian hawk-eagles (genus Spizaetus). Bird Conservation International
  15:99-117.
Gamauf, A., J.O. Gjershaug, K. Kvaløy,K., N. Røv, and E. Haring. 2005.
  Molecular phylogeny of the hawk-eagles (genus Spizaetus). Zoologische
  Mededelingen Leiden 79-3(21):179-180.
Gjershaug, J.O.. 2006. Taxonomy and conservation status of hawk-eagles
  (Genus Nisaetus) in South-east Asia. Ph.D. dissertation, Norwegian
  University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
  http://urn.ub.uu.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:no:ntnu:diva-413
  (2008-03-03)
Helbig, A.J., A. Kocum, I. Seibold, and M.J. Braun. 2005. A multi-gene
  phylogeny of aquiline eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) reveals extensive
  paraphyly at the genus level. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
  35:147-164.
Lerner, H.R., and D.P. Mindell. 2005. Phylogeny of eagles, Old World
  vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.
  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37:327-346.
Nurwatha, P.F., Z. Rahman, and W. Raharjaningtrah. 2000. Distribution and
  population of Sulawesi Hawk-eagle Spizaetus lanceolatus in south and central
  Sulawesi. Y.P.A.L. Pro Natura Fund, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Thiollay, J.-M., and Z. Rahman. 2002. Distribution and conservation of
  raptor communities in central Sulawesi. Biological Conservation 107:111-122.
van Balen, B.S. 1998. Tropical forest raptors in Indonesia: recent
  information on distribution, status, and conservation. Journal of Raptor
  Research 32:56-63.
more....

Researchers:
Gamauf, Anita
Gjershaug, Jan Ove

Last modified: 12/22/2010

Recommended Citation: Global Raptor Information Network. 2017. Species account: Sulawesi Hawk-eagle Nisaetus lanceolatus. Downloaded from http://www.globalraptors.org on 22 Oct. 2017








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