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Plumbeous Hawk
Leucopternis plumbeus

Status: Near Threatened

Population Trend: Declining.

Other Names: Leucopternis plumbea.


Leucopternis plumbeus
click to enlarge
Distribution: Neotropical.  Western PANAMA (Veraguas) south in the western Andes through COLOMBIA and ECUADOR to extreme northwestern PERU. more....

Subspecies: Monotypic.

Taxonomy: Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes, Amaral et al. (2006) found that the genus Leucopternis, as traditionally arranged, is not monophyletic and that it is a composite of three independent lineages. Earlier, Ridgway (1876), Brown and Amadon (1968), and Amadon (1982) predicted a close relationship between this species and L. schistaceus and the genus Buteogallus. Hellmayr and Conover (1949) and Amadon and Bull (1988) even regarded the two forms as conspecific. However, the molecular studies of Amaral et al. (op cit.) did not show a close relationship between them. Their data revealed the existence of a clade formed by this species, L. schistacea, L. lacernulatus, Buteogallus urubitinga, B. meridionalis, and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus and established an early split of L. plumbeus from the other species in this clade. Lerner et al. (2008) also found that L. plumbeus and L. schistacea are more closely related to Bueogallus than to other Leucopternis species. David and Gosselin (2002) pointed out that the generic name Leucopternis is masculine, hence the change from ""plumbea" to plumbeus.

Movements: Probably non-migratory.

Habitat and Habits: Lowlands and middle elevations.  Prefers the interior of humid forest. Rarely soars.

Food and Feeding Behavior: Perches on high exposed location in early morning, but otherwise mainly at low to moderate heights inside forest (Hilty and Brown 1986). Rarely soars. Usually founds singly.

Breeding: No information.

Conservation: Rare throughout its limited range. This is one of the least known species of Neotropical raptors. Márquez Reyes et al. (2000) categorized this species as “Near Threatened,” as did Collar et al. (1992, 1994) and BirdLife International (2007). Presumably suffers from habitat loss. more....

Important References: 
Amaral, F.S.R., M.J. Miller, L.F. Silveira, E. Bermingham, and A. Wajntal.
  2006. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves,
  Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine
  diversification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6:1-10.
Bierregaard, R.O. 1994. Plumbeous Hawk. P. 168 in del Hoyo, J., A.
  Elliott, and J. Sargatal (eds). Handbook of birds of the world. Vol. 2. New
  World vultures to guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Ferguson-Lees, J., and D.A. Christie. 2001. Raptors of the world. Houghton
  Mifflin, Boston, MA.
Lerner, H.R.L., M.C. Klaver, and D.P. Mindell. 2008. Molecular
  phylogenetics of the buteonine birds of prey (Accipitridae). Auk
  125:304-315.
Amaral, F.S.R., M.J. Miller, L.F. Silveira, E., Bermingham, and A.
  Wajntal.
2006. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus
  (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical
  buteonine diversification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6:1-10.
Salvin, O. 1872. A further revision of the genus Leucopternis, with a
  description of a new species. Ibis 14:239-243.
more....

Sites of Interest:
VIREO
Plumbeous Hawk photos.
Xeno-canto
Vocalizations.

Researchers:
Campbell-Thompson, Edwin

Last modified: 9/12/2009

Recommended Citation: Global Raptor Information Network. 2017. Species account: Plumbeous Hawk Leucopternis plumbeus. Downloaded from http://www.globalraptors.org on 28 Apr. 2017








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