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Karen Steenhof
   Photo

Karen Steenhof

   Biography

Karen Steenhof is a research wildlife biologist, who retired from the U.S. Geological Survey in 2008. In her 31 years with the US federal government (BLM and USGS), Karen studied birds of prey in and near the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. She served as leader of the Pacific Bald Eagle Recovery team and has published many articles about raptors, including papers on long-term population dynamics of Golden Eagles and long-range movements of Prairie Falcons, as determined by satellite telemetry.

Owyhee Desert Studies
18109 Briar Creek Road  
Murphy,  ID  83650  United States
Email: karensteenhof@gmail.com


   Research Interests

Raptor population dynamics, dispersal, foraging ecology, migration, methodology/terminology

Species of Interest: 
  • Northern Raven
  • Ferruginous Hawk
  • Golden Eagle
  • Bald Eagle
  • American Kestrel
  • Prairie Falcon


   Publications

Smith, S.H., K. Steenhof, C.J.W. McClure and J. A. Heath. 2016. Earlier nesting by generalist predatory bird is associated with human responses to climate change. Journal of Animal Ecology 86(1):98-107.       pdf

Heath, J.A., K. Steenhof, and M.A. Foster. 2012. Shorter migration distances associated with higher winter temperatures suggest a mechanism for advancing nesting phenology of American Kestrels Falco sparverius. Joural of Avian Biology 43:376-384.

Kochert, M.N., and K. Steenhof. 2012. Frequency of nest use by Golden Eagles in southwestern Idaho. Journal of Raptor Research 46:248-257.

Steenhof, K. 2012. (Review of) The Golden Eagle, 2nd ed., by Jeff Watson. Auk 129:183-184.

Steenhof, K. 2011. (Review of) The Eagle Watchers: Observing and Conserving Raptors around the World, by Ruth E. Tingay and Todd E. Katzner (eds.). Condor 113:472.       pdf

Kochert, M.R., K. Steenhof, and P.L. Kennedy. 2010. In memoriam: Dr. Carl D. Marti, 1944-2010. Journal of Raptor Research 44:335-336.       pdf

Steenhof, K. 2009. (Review of) Raptors of Western North America, by B.K. Wheeler. Northwestern Naturalist 90:58-59.

Steenhof, K., and J.A. Heath. 2009. American Kestrel reproduction: evidence for the selection hypothesis and the role of dispersal. Ibis 151:493-501.

Steenhof, K., and B. E. Peterson. 2009. American Kestrel reproduction in southwestern Idaho: annual variation and long-term trends. Journal of Raptor Research 43:283-290.       pdf

Steenhof, K., and B.E. Peterson. 2009. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American Kestrels. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121:12-21.       pdf

Steenhof, K., and I. Newton. 2007. Assessing raptor nest success and productivity. Pp. 181-192 in D.M. Bird and K.L. Bildstein (eds.), Raptor Research and Management Techniques. Hancock House, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada and Blaine, WA.

Steenhof, K., K.K. Bates, M.R. Fuller, M.N. Kochert, J.O. McKinley, and P.M. Lukacs. 2006. Effects of radio marking on Prairie Falcons: attachment failures provide insights about survival. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:116-126. http://fresc.usgs.gov/products/papers/1541_Steenhof.pdf

Steenhof, K., and J.O. McKinley. 2006.Size dimorphism, molt status, and body mass variation of Prairie Falcon nesting in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. Journal of Raptor Research 40: 71-75. http://fresc.usgs.gov/products/papers/1417_Steenhof.pdf

Steenhof, K., E. Yensen, M.N. Kochert, and K.L. Gage. 2006. Populations and habitat relationships of Piute Ground Squirrels in southwestern Idaho. Western North American Naturalist 66:482-491. http://fresc.usgs.gov/products/papers/1540_Steenhof.pdf

Steenhof, K., M.R. Fuller, M.N. Kochert, and K.K. Bates. 2005. Long-range movements and breeding dispersal of Prairie Falcons from southwest Idaho. Condor 107:481-496. http://fresc.usgs.gov/products/papers/1386_Steenhof.pdf

DeLong, J.P., and K. Steenhof. 2004. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Prairie Falcon. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, ND. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center On-line. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/literatr/grasbird/prfa/prfa.htm (Version 28 MAY 2004).

Steenhof, K. 2004. Prairie Falcon nursery. Birder's World 18:40-45.

Bates, K., K. Steenhof, and M. Fuller. 2003. Finding small PTTs on the ground without the aid of VHF telemetry: recommendations from successful field case histories. Argos Animal Tracking Symposium. Annapolis, Maryland, March 24-26, 2003. Available on a CD from Service Argos, Inc., 1801 McCormick Drive Suite 10, Largo MD 20774. Also viewable on the web at: http://srfs.wr.usgs.gov/pdf/Finding PTTs.pdf

Kochert, M.N., and K. Steenhof. 2002. Golden Eagles in the U.S. and Canada; status, trends, and conservation challenges. Journal of Raptor Research 36:32-40.       pdf

Kochert, M.N., K. Steenhof, C.L. McIntyre and E.H. Craig. 2002. Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). In A. Poole and F. Gill [eds.], The Birds of North America no. 684. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 44 pp. http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/BNA/account/Golden_Eagle/

Steenhof, K. 2002. (Review of) The Raptor Almanac, by Scott Weidensaul. Journal of Raptor Research 36:87-88.

Steenhof, K., L. Bond, K.K. Bates and L.L. Leppert. 2002. Trends in midwinter counts of Bald Eagles in the contiguous United States, 1986-2000. Bird Populations 6:21-32. http://srfs.wr.usgs.gov/pdf/Trends_midwinter.pdf

Schueck, L.S., J.M. Marzluff, and K. Steenhof. 2001. Influence of military activities on raptor abundance and behavior. Condor 103:606-615.       pdf

Entwistle, P.G., A.M. DeBolt, J.H. Kaltenecker, and K. Steenhof (compilers). 2000. Proceedings: Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems Symposium. Bureau of Land Management Publication No. LM/ID/PT-0010001+1150. BLM/ID/PT-001001+1150. Bureau of Land Management. Boise, Idaho. http://ris.wr.usgs.gov/general/SSSymp.pdf

Entwistle, P.G., A.M. DeBolt, J.H. Kaltenecker and K. Steenhof. 2000. Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area habitat restoration workshop. Pp. 133-140 in P.G. Entwistle, A.M. DeBolt, J.H. Kaltenecker, and K. Steenhof (eds.), Proceedings: Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems Symposium. USDI, Bureau of Land Management, Boise, Idaho. http://ris.wr.usgs.gov/general/SSSymp.pdf

Lehman, R.N., K. Steenhof, L.B. Carpenter, and M.N. Kochert. 2000. Turnover and dispersal of Prairie Falcons in southwestern Idaho. Journal of Raptor Research 34:262-269.       pdf

Steenhof, K., M.N. Kochert, L.B. Carpenter, R.N. Lehman, and J.M. Marzluff. 2000. Effects of wildfires and military training on raptors. Pp. 100-101 in P.G. Entwistle, A.M. DeBolt, J.H. Kaltenecker, and K. Steenhof (compilers), Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems Symposium. Bureau of Land Management Publication no. BLM/ID/PT-0010001+1150. http://ris.wr.usgs.gov/general/SSSymp.pdf/

Kochert, M.N., K. Steenhof, L.B. Carpenter, and J.M. Marzluff. 1999. Effects of fire on Golden Eagle territory occupancy and reproductive success. Journal of Wildlife Management 63: 773-780. http://fresc.usgs.gov/products/papers/973_Kochert.pdf

Lehman, R.N., K. Steenhof, M.N. Kochert, and L.B. Carpenter. 1999. Effects of military training activities on shrub-steppe raptors in southwestern Idaho, USA. Environmental Management 23: 409-417.

Smallwood, J.A., C. Natale, K. Steenhof, M. Meetz, C.D. Marti, R.J. Melvin, G.R. Bortolotti, R. Robertson, S. Robertson, W.R. Shuford, S.A. Lindermann, and B. Tornwall. 1999. Clinal variation in the juvenile plumage of American Kestrels. Journal of Field Ornithology 70: 425-435.       pdf

Steenhof, K., M.N. Kochert, L.B. Carpenter, and R.N. Lehman. 1999. Long-term Prairie Falcon population changes in relation to prey abundance, weather, land uses, and habitat condition. Condor 101:28-41.       pdf

Kaltenecker, G. S., K. Steenhof, M.J. Bechard, and J. C. Munger. 1998. Winter foraging ecology of Bald Eagles on a regulated river in southwest Idaho. Journal of Raptor Research 32: 215-220.       pdf

Lehman, R.N., L.B. Carpenter, K. Steenhof, and M.N. Kochert. 1998. Assessing relative abundance and reproductive success of shrubsteppe raptors. Journal of Field Ornithology 69:244-256.       pdf

Steenhof, K. 1998. (Review of) The Golden Eagle, by Jeff Watson. Auk 115:547-548.

Steenhof, K. 1998. Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). In A. Poole and F. Gill (eds.), The Birds of North America No. 346. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/BNA/account/Prairie_Falcon/

Lincer, J.L., and K. Steenhof (eds.). 1997. The Burrowing Owl, its biology and management: including the Proceedings of the First International Symposium. Raptor Research Report Number 9.

Marzluff, J.M., M.S. Vekasy, M.N. Kochert, and K. Steenhof. 1997. Productivity of Golden Eagles wearing backpack transmitters. Journal of Raptor Research 31: 223-227.       pdf

Steenhof, K., M. N. Kochert, and T.L. McDonald. 1997. Interactive effects of prey and weather on Golden Eagle reproduction. Journal of Animal Ecology 66:350-362.       pdf

Steenhof, K., and B.E. Peterson. 1997. Double brooding by American Kestrels in Idaho. Journal of Raptor Research 31:274-276.       pdf

Steenhof, K., S.T. Knick, M.R. Fuller, M.N. Kochert, and J.T. Rotenberry. 1996. Effects of military training and fire in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. BLM/IDARNG Research Project Final Report. Vol.1. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Snake River Field Station Boise, ID. 130 pp. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/djvu/Misc/fresc_969.djvu

Vekasy, M.S., J.M. Marzluff, M.N. Kochert, R.N. Lehman, and K. Steenhof. 1996. Influence of radio transmitters on Prairie Falcons. Journal of Field Ornithology 67:680-690.       pdf

Evans, D., C. Rains, M.J. Bechard, and K. Steenhof. 1994. Cabarton Bald Eagle territory management plan, North Fork Payette River, Cabarton, Idaho. Raptor Research and Technical Assistance Center/Boise State University, Boise, ID.

Steenhof, K., G.P. Carpenter, and J.C. Bednarz. 1994. Use of mist nets and a live Great-Horned Owl to capture breeding American Kestrels. Journal of Raptor Research 28:194-196.       pdf

Marti, C.D., K. Steenhof, M.N. Kochert, and J.S. Marks. 1993. Community trophic structure: the roles of diet, body size, and activity time in vertebrate predators. Oikos 67: 6-18.

Steenhof, K., M.N. Kochert, and J.A. Roppe. 1993. Nesting by raptors and ravens on an electrical transmission line. Journal of Wildlife Management 57: 271-281.

Engel, K.A., L.S. Young, K. Steenhof, J.A. Roppe, and M.N. Kochert. 1992. Communal roosting of ravens on an electrical transmission line. Wilson Bulletin 104: 105-121.       pdf

Yensen, E., D.L. Quinney, K. Johnson, K. Timmerman, and K. Steenhof. 1992. Fire, vegetation changes, and population fluctuations of Townsend's Ground Squirrels. American Midland Naturalist 128:299-312. http://fresc.usgs.gov/products/papers/337_Yensen.pdf

Edwards, T.C., Jr., M.W. Collopy, K. Steenhof, and M.N. Kochert. 1988. Sex ratios of fledgling Golden Eagles. Auk 105:793 796.       pdf

Groves, C.R., and K. Steenhof. 1988. Responses of small mammals and vegetation to wildfire in shadscale communities of southwestern Idaho. Northwest Science 62:205 210

Kochert, M.N., B.A. Millsap, and K. Steenhof. 1988. Effects of livestock grazing on raptors with emphasis on the southwestern U.S. Pp. 325-334 in R. Glinski et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Southwestern Raptor Management Symposium and Workshop. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C.

Steenhof, K. 1988. Identifying potential Bald Eagle nesting habitat: a review of the state of the art. Pp. 31-59 in D. Garcelon and G. W. Roemer (eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Raptor Reintroduction, 1985. Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, CA.

Steenhof, K., and M.N. Kochert. 1988. Dietary responses of three raptor species to changing prey densities in a natural environment. Journal of Animal Ecology 57:37-48.       pdf

Steenhof, K. 1987. Assessing raptor reproductive success and productivity. Pp. 157-170 in B.A. Giron Pendleton, B.A. Millsap, K.W. Cline, and D.M. Bird (eds.), Raptor management techniques manual. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C.

Allen, G.T., R.K. Murphy, K. Steenhof, and S.W. Platt. 1986. Late fledging dates, renesting, and large clutches of Prairie Falcons. Wilson Bulletin 98:463-465.       pdf

Steenhof, K., and M.N. Kochert. 1985. Dietary shifts of sympatric buteos during a prey decline. Oecologia (Berlin) 66:6-16.

Steenhof, K. 1984. (Review of) Behavior of fledgling peregrines, by S. Sherrod. Murrelet 65:31.

Steenhof, K. 1984. Use of an interspecific roost by wintering Ferruginous Hawks. Wilson Bulletin 96:137-138.       pdf

Steenhof, K., M.N. Kochert, and M.Q. Moritsch. 1984. Dispersal and migration of southwestern Idaho raptors. Journal of Field Ornithology 55:357-368.       pdf

Kochert, M.N., K. Steenhof, and M.Q. Moritsch. 1983. Evaluation of patagial markers for raptors and ravens. Wildlife Society Bulletin 11:271-281.

Steenhof, K. 1983. Activity patterns of Bald Eagles wintering in South Dakota. Raptor Research 17:57-62.       pdf

Steenhof, K. 1983. Prey weights for computing percent biomass in raptor diets. Raptor Research 17:15-27.       pdf

Steenhof, K., M.N. Kochert, and J.H. Doremus. 1983. Nesting of subadult Golden Eagles in southwestern Idaho. Auk 100:743-747.       pdf

Steenhof, K. 1982. Use of an automated geographic information system by the Snake River Birds of Prey Research Project. Computers Environment and Urban Systems 7:245-251.

Steenhof, K., and M.N. Kochert. 1982. Nest attentiveness and feeding rates of Common Ravens in Idaho. Murrelet 63:30-32.

Taylor, G., T. Murphy, D. Rubink, K. Steenhof, N. Green, and W. Ashe. 1982. Bald Eagles now and in the future -- panel discussion. Pp. 166-174 in T.N. Ingram (ed.), Proceedings of the Bald Eagle Conference on "Bald Eagle Restoration", August 13-15, 1982. Technical Report Bed-82. Rochester, New York. Eagle Valley Environmentalists, Apple Valley, IL.

Steenhof, K., and M.N. Kochert. 1982. An evaluation of methods used to estimate raptor nesting success. Journal of Wildlife Management 46:885-893.

Steenhof, K., S.S. Berlinger, and L.H. Fredrickson. 1980. Habitat use by wintering Bald Eagles in South Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management 44:798-805.

Steenhof, K. 1979. Snake River Birds of Prey special research report to the Secretary of the Interior. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Boise, ID. 142 pp.

Steenhof, K. 1978. Management of wintering Bald Eagles. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Report FWS/OBS 78/79. 59 pp.

Steenhof, K. 1976. The ecology of wintering Bald Eagles in southeastern South Dakota. M.Sc. thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

Steenhof, K. 1978. Birds of prey Snake River sanctuary. Our Public Lands 28:3-7.



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